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Six Anti-Doping Highlights for 2018

7 Dec 2017

In 2018, there are a number of changes that athletes need to be aware of, and two of the main changes are highlighted below.

1. Increase in Intravenous (IV) Infusion Limits
With the 2018 WADA Prohibited List, the allowed volume and timing of IV infusions of permitted substances will increase to no more than a total of 100 mL (~6.8 tablespoons) per 12-hour period. More specifically, IV infusions and/or injections of any substance in excess of 100 mL per 12-hour period are prohibited at all times, except for those legitimately received in the course of hospital treatment, surgical procedures, or clinical diagnostic investigations. For example, TUEs are still required for infusions provided through on-site event medical services, ambulatory treatment, outpatient clinics, IV or wellness boutiques, doctors’ or medical offices, home visits, and all other non-hospital locations.
**If a prohibited substance is administered intravenously or via injection, a TUE is necessary for this substance regardless of whether the infusion or injection is less than 100mL.

2. Cannabidiol Removed from the List
Starting in 2018, natural and synthetic cannabidiol (e.g., CBD oil) is no longer prohibited in-competition, but all other forms of cannabis remain prohibited in-competition, including marijuana, hashish, and all THC-containing products. Be aware, cannabidiol extracted from cannabis plants may still contain varying concentrations of prohibited THC, so athletes should continue to be cautious about using CBD products that may contain THC around the in-competition period.

1. SARMs – Prohibited Anabolic Agents
SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators), such as andarine and ostarine, are prohibited under this category. The unfortunate reality is that some dietary supplement manufacturers illegally put SARMs in their products, and some omit these substances from the label entirely or use misleading names to confuse consumers. In 2018, LGD-4033 and RAD140 were added as further examples of SARMs.
There have been many instances of products marketed as dietary supplements that contain one or more anabolic agents. Remember that the use of any supplement is at an athlete’s own risk.

2. Clomiphene
Clomiphene is prohibited at all times as an anti-estrogenic substance. A selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), clomiphene is used in female fertility brand name prescription medications, such as Clomid®. Even after a single oral dose of Clomid, clomiphene and clomiphene metabolites can remain in the urine for many weeks. All athletes are required to get a TUE in advance of using clomiphene.

3. Clenbuterol
With hundreds and hundreds of reported clenbuterol positive tests around the world over the past 10 years, athletes need to remain vigilant about possible unintentional clenbuterol ingestion, especially when competing or travelling in Mexico and China. There is no urinary threshold reporting limit for clenbuterol, meaning the detection of any amount of clenbuterol in an athlete’s sample is a positive test.
As a growth promotor in livestock, clenbuterol can be ingested by eating cooked or uncooked meat outside New Zealand, so athletes should be very cautious to eat meat only from reputable sources, and should avoid consuming liver or liver-derived products outside of New Zealand. Clenbuterol may also be found illegally in some weight loss dietary supplements.

4. Higenamine
This substance is a Beta-2 Agonist (which allow the lungs to take in more oxygen) and is banned both in and out of competition. If detected in your sample, you face up to a four year ban from sport. Higenamine is typically described as a ‘natural’ extract or by-product and also goes by the following names:

- Demethylcoclaurine
- Norcoclaurine
- Tinospora crispa
Athletes are advised to avoid using higenamine powder, and any supplements which list higenamine on their ingredient list. This includes the following supplements which are advertised as containing Higenamine:

- OxyShred
- Jack3d
- Alpha T2
- PES Amphamine Advanced